Latest Responsive Image 1.5b3 (download from here) should already work with Typesetter 5.0-rc2.
Current ParallaxImage 1.1b2 is not yet TS5 ready. So it's not related to Windows or localhost.
I'll upload a fixed version shortly and drop a note here when it's available.
Ok, Parallax Image 1.1b3 is ready for download and should work with Typesetter 5.
Responsive Image 1.5b3 does not work CKEditor.
Sorry, I had not implemented the required styles, therefore a white caption on the white (CKEditor) background was not visible.
I managed to make CKEditor adopt the selected image and the overlay color. I hope this was the issue you had and that it works now.
New Version 1.5b4 is available for download here
Developing several similar plugins at the same time and having them all installed turns out to be a bad idea. Thanks to your testing some pretty important things became clear to me, such as how multiple CKEditor instances will work in parallel in Typesetter 5's non-linear editing workflow.
I believe most issues should be sorted out now. So I dare a Release Candidate 1.
Again, thanks so much for your help!